This final lesson of assignments is included to facilitate study of the principles of caricaturing explained and illustrated in the preceding lessons. The author knows from personal experience that it is much easier to study when one has definite assignments of work to be done. Although it is presumed that the majority of people who use this book will have had some practice in drawing, many will be beginners, or at most, not far advanced, and it is especially difficult for the novice to study without a guide for his efforts. The amateur needs something of the professional’s experience and imagination in the form of suggestions to add to his own initiative in producing an original work of art both drawings and suggestions which he can grasp and follow. To a great extent the imagination must be developed. However this does not mean that some are not gifted with more imagination than others but that whatever imaginative powers one has must be developed, just as a very talented artist must develop his talent by study. Even Michael Angelo, one of the greatest artists of all time, had to learn to draw just the same as a less talented artist, but he probably learned much quicker and with less effort.
Perspective is the science of representing things as they appear rather than as they really are. It is accomplished by the careful reproduction of lines, colors, lights and shades. But the most perfect drawing cannot entirely overcome some degree of flatness in a picture. This is due to the fact that an artist draws only one picture and our eyes see two pictures when viewing objects in reality. Look at some cylindrical object such as a barrel with the left eye, dosing the right, then vice versa and you will note that you see farther around the right side with the right eye, and farther around the left side with the left eye. So each eye gives a slightly different picture of the barrel or other object. These two visual images are combined in the brain into one visual percept. By means of the stereoscope one looks at two pictures, seeing them as one, and the objects in the picture stand out in startling perspective.
There are four essentials of a good caricature: a likeness of the person portrayed, exaggeration, simplicity or economy of lines used in drawing, and originality. The best method of attaining these four essentials in one drawing is by much study and sketching, trying die different ways of drawing one caricature. A good rule to follow in doing this is to first draw a picture as much like the subject as possible, not exaggerating. Next make another drawing exaggerating the most distinctive characteristics and simplifying the drawing, leaving out lines not necessary. Keep sketching, exaggerating and simplifying as much as the drawing will stand and still retain a good likeness. Add your own originality of execution and you have the most you can do with your present knowledge and skill. Some faces seem to have been made to order for cartoonists while others are very difficult. It is only by experiment that one learns the easy ones. Of course such simplified drawings exaggerating the most distinctive characteristics of the per’ son they portray are little more than suggestions of those prominent features which our eyes catch, our minds suggesting the balance.
(1) With a Gillott’s pen number 303, practice the vertical parallel lines in Figure A, Plate 1. Practice these lines until you can draw them evenly and steadily, free from nervousness. Be careful to space them as evenly as possible. Unless you have done considerable work with a drawing pen, it will be necessary to draw them slowly at first. Speed will come with practice. Your purpose when beginning should be perfection rather than speed.
(2) Figure B on the same plate is also produced with the 303 pen. Only slight pressure is used in such light lines as these. Practice these horizontal strokes. It is practically impossible to draw perfectly straight lines without the aid of a ruler or some kind of straight edge. Free hand lines are not supposed to be straight hard lines such as the draftsman employs; but should have slight variation to convey feeling, and variety to prevent monotony.
(3) The wavy vertical lines in Figure C should be less difficult for the beginner than the preceding exercises.
(4) Figure D illustrates shaky lines which have movement from left to right. They are termed dynamic because they convey the sense of movement. This movement is obtained by the longer oblique stroke opposed by a shorter stroke, and by the variation. However, the variation or irregularity serves mostly as a relief from the monotony which results from exact repetition of a stroke or motif.
(5) Figures E and F are termed Crosshatch. This type of tone is often employed for shadows and not infrequently for shading of clothes. Practice them until you have gained some facility and sureness in handling the pen.
(6) G shows a combination of the lines in Figures C and D to form a dynamic Crosshatch. Parallel lines or straight lines in crosshatch are static. Static is the opposite of dynamic; therefore, static lines do not convey the feeling of motion.
(7) Movement is obtained by opposing strokes in the herring bone weave of Figure H. Practice this pattern of strokes with a larger pen,
(8) Make several copies each of Figures I, J, K, and L. Also of N, O, and P. Spatter work will be treated later.
(9) It is important that you attain facility in drawing graded lines. Without this ability you can hardly do professional looking work. Make several sheets of the exercises in Figures Q, R, S, T, and U.
(10) Also see what you can do with Figures V and W. Remember that originality is one of the most important aspects of any kind of art.
(11) Make careful and exact copies of the four caricatures which are included in the first lesson.
(12) Make original caricatures of these four men. Feel free to make any changes which you think will improve them. You may change the expressions, and employ more or less exaggeration accenting to your mood. Give your imagination free range.
(1) With a ruler or T-square draw the lines as in Figure, Plate 2. Draw them twice as large as they appear on this plate, for you remember that drawings are usually reduced to 1/2 size reproduction. Figure 1 should be drawn in pencil. Over these pencil guide lines sketch in the face of Figure 2. Finish as in Figure 3, draw it with ink, then erase the pencil guide lines and you have an interesting head.
(2) Copy Figure 4, same plate, and add a small body if you care to.
(3) For further practice in drawing the head in direct front view, copy Figures 2 and 3, Plate 3, and the caricature of Clemenceau on Lesson 2.
(4) Figures 4 and 5, on Plate 3, illustrate the head in 2/3 front view. Draw these.
(5) Draw the caricature of Bolivar, on Lesson 2.
(6) Going back to Plate 2, make ten diagrams of Figure 1. Using these guide lines, draw ten original comic heads, front view. To get variety in your work, vary the features, such as different shaped and sized eyes, noses of different length and shape, etc.
(7) Using similar diagrams, draw ten side view (profile) comic heads Employ the same form of variation as in exercise 6.
(8) The head in 2/3 front is more difficult than the front or profile. But this greater difficulty should only serve as a greater incentive to conquer, instead of as a discouraging factor. Draw ten heads in 2/3 front. Block them out with die aid of guide lines. If you need further help, refer to drawings in this book and to cartoons in magazines, such as Esquire, Colliers, Saturday Evening Post, etc.
(9) Age. Draw five heads of old men and five of old women. Refer to this subject in Lesson 2
(10) Youth. Draw five heads of children.
(1) For the purpose of memorizing the essentials of expression, make several copies of each expression illustrated on Plate 4.
(2) For each expression draw a small comic head but simplify further the features and expression.
(3) Draw each expression in profile and 2/3 front view.
(4) For further practice of expression turn to Plate 5 and make exact copies of Figures 1, 2, and 3. Can you express the smile, the stern and angry expressions?
(5) Figures 4, 5, 6, and 7 show Der Fuehrer smiling, angry, sad, and interested, respectively.
(6) The cartoonist makes animals express their feelings also. This is illustrated by Figures 8 and 9 on the same plate (5). Copy these.
(7) Copy outright the caricature of Foch on Lesson 3. Reproduce exactly the parallel line and Crosshatch shading in this drawing.
(8) Draw a donkey’s head, side view, smiling.
(9) Draw an elephant’s head as above, except substitute anger for smile
(1) Draw about fifty eyes in various shapes, sizes, and degrees of exaggeration ranging from mere dots and slits to the large, “come-hither'” eyes of an irresistible young lady.
(2) Draw a large variety of ears in all shapes and sizes.
(3) As for noses make them long, short, slender, fat, roman, pug, crooked, and flat. Draw them front, profile, and 2/3 front.
(4) Copy Figures 2 and 4 on Plate 6. Also both caricatures of Masefield on this same plate.
(5) Draw several original heads, using for features, suitable ones selected from your work in exercises 1, 2, and 3. Also get variety and exaggeration in hair, jaws, and chins. Make double chins, pointed chins, chins with beard and stubble beard.
(6) Copy the head of Bismarck, Lesson 4. Change any part you wish, but be sure to retain a likeness of the subject.
(7) Copy all three drawings on Plate 8. Note the snorting expression of the pony.
(1) In all exercises for this section, employ the method of blocking out figures as illustrated in Figures A, B, 1, and 4, Plate 9. Copy Figure 3 following the procedure as illustrated.
(2) Copy Figures 5, 6, and 7. Get the same expressions and actions as in the originals. Also same shading.
(3) Originate 5 comic figures in front view. Get a selection of fat, slender, tall, and short figures.
(4) Same as Exercise 3 except in side view.
(5) Same as 3 and 4 except 2/3 front.
(1) Read carefully the lesson on action before beginning the following exercises.
(2) Copy all figures on Plate 10.
(3) Plate 11 illustrates several good action studies. Copy these carefully.
(4) Copy the action and shading illustrations on Plate 12.
(5) For a change and rest from figures, copy the caricatures on Lesson 5 (Coffin), 6 (Disraeli, Taft). Also the one on Lesson 6 (Joffre).
(6) Draw a boxer, side view, punching a bag. Get plenty of action into it.
(7) Draw Hitler making a speech. Make hair disheveled, eyes wild with emotion, mouth opened wide, and arms and hands wildly gesticulating. Place M on a balcony and very simply, suggest a crowd listening. Remember simplicity is essential for good cartoons. Good cartoons suggest rather than portray faithfully. They only show the essential with everything superfluous omitted.
(8) Draw a football player kicking a football. Can you adequately represent a hard kick?
(9) Draw a baseball player running to first base and really make him step on it! Suggest the stadium full of wildly cheering fans.
(10) Do two action figures of your own choosing.
(1) For further practice in the use of parallel lines, Crosshatch, and spatter in shading, copy the drawings on Plate 14 and Lesson 7 (Wilson). But before doing the exercises for this lesson, reread it (Lesson 7) carefully.
(2) Draw a cube of about 2 inches square. Use a model if possible, and have the light coming from only one direction. Shade the block, using tones of different values for the different planes to bring out the form forcefully. Also represent the shadow cast.
(3) Draw a cylinder standing on end, about 4 inches high and 2 inches wide. How can you show the curvature of the surface? It also casts a shadow. Draw the shadow.
(4) A chair is setting in the sunlight. Draw it with a shadow beneath. Use Crosshatch for the shadow. Does the shadow seem to lie flat on the ground? Does it stand on edge? Why?
(5) A burglar is running very rapidly beside a board fence. The moonlight casts a shadow from his feet to the fence and a part of his shadow is on the fence. Draw him. Suggest houses on other side of fence, also a few bushes and trash to represent an alley scene. Have you gotten a pleasing contrast between your light and dark tones?
(6) Draw a fat man in a boat fishing. The boat is small and the man is so heavy that it is almost standing on end. Draw shadow beneath the end of boat which is above water. Also the shadow of the man is shown on the water. Can you represent water simply? This is a good exercise.
(7) Draw a man’s coat, front view, without the man. Place shadows under lapels and buttons. Make wrinkles as if coat were on a man.
(8) Draw a vest and trousers as if they were on a man but don’t draw the man. Place shadows where needed.
(9) A pair of shoes are on the floor. The toes are turned up slightly. Draw them with shadows which emphasize this and show contact with the floor.
(10) Remember all these tricks of shading and shadows. Draw an original composition, and shade it according to what you have learned.
(1) Copy the caricature of Jack Dempsey on Lesson 8. Reproduce the technique of the original drawing.
(2) Copy the drawing on Lesson 8 (Dawes). Note this is entirely different from die one on Lesson 8 (Dempsey).
(3) Copy the composition on Plate 16. This drawing has cross-hatch, parallel lines, and heavy stripes. The solid black affords contrast and lends color to the drawing. Note the flying notes which signify that Paderewski is playing.
(4) Copy the drawing of Coffin on Lesson 5 (Coffin). All drawings should be made twice the size which they appear in this book. Note the simplicity of this drawing. Can you obtain the same expression as tie author has depicted?
(5) In the two caricatures of Pershing, Hate 13, Plate 13, note the difference in treatment or technique. Copy these as exercises in technique. Also make a drawing of Sam Insull
(6) Copy the two caricatures of Howard Thurston, Plate 15. Note the simplification and exaggeration in Figure 2,
(7) Using any model you prefer, draw a caricature using soft lead pencil and wash.
(8) Draw another one with crayon or any other medium you prefer. Learn to exercise initiative and originality. If you have an air brush try a caricature in this medium.
(1) After rereading Lesson 9, make copies of all animals on Plates 17 and 18. Do not draw them just to get them done, for such work will not be of any help in developing your ability to draw. Draw them carefully with the same actions and expressions, unless you think you can improve them.
(2) Draw a donkey, side view, with Jack Garner in the saddle. Suggest a landscape of cactus and distant mesas. Can you make the donkey look lazy and slow? How should his ears be? His head? What about shading and shadows?
(3) With the help of Plate 8, draw a bucking horse ridden by a cowpuncher. Have him holding a ten gallon hat in one hand, the reins with the other.
(4) Draw a woodpecker pecking on a snag. How can you suggest flying dust and the rapidity of his head movements?
(5) Draw the Russian bear eating a man which is labeled Finland. Draw this in the style of a propaganda cartoon for newspapers.
(6) Draw the British lion being subdued by Mahatma Gandhi. This is another propagandist idea. How can you best express the idea?
(7) Draw an elephant, labeled G.OJP., standing on rear .feet, boxing gloves on front feet, punching a bag which is labeled New Deal.
(8) Take a good gag pertaining to a man and his wife and apply it to a rooster and hen; then draw an illustration of the joke.
(9) Draw Peter Rabbit riding on a sled which is being pulled by a dog. Make a drawing of this idea which will interest children.
(10) Draw any five animals you wish with any actions and expressions, and in any views you choose. But have expressions consistent with action and vice versa. Develop your imagination by originating ideas. Develop originality by drawing correctly but differently.
(1) Copy the lettering on Plate 19. Draw pencil guide lines first and lay out the lettering in pencil also, before beginning with the lettering pen. It is not necessary to make the fine arrowed lines which are on die plate merely for the purpose of indicating the direction and order of the stroke.
(2) Copy the words “Drawing the Head” as they appear on Plate 2, Lesson 1 Note the shadows cast by letters upon other letters.
(3) From Plate 3, Lesson 2, copy the word “William II.” This is a style often used in newspaper cartoons. Letter the following words in the same style: “Crown Prince,” “John Dewey,” “Ferdinand.”
(4) The word “Coontz,” Plate 5, Lesson 4, shows another style appropriate for cartoons. In the same style letter “Marshal Foch.”
(?) Letter the words “Brandenburg” and “Hohenzollern” in the style of the word “Hindenburg” on Plate 7, Lesson 4
(6) Letter your name with conjoined letters as in “Ignace Paderewski,” Lesson 8. Letter the word Roosevelt in the same style. Draw the two o’s interlocking or passing through each other as two links of a chain.
(7) Letter several other words in a style similar to that of the above exercise, but shade the letters differently. Always use guide lines.
(1) Draw a house in perspective, comic style. Have sunlight falling from right to left and shade accordingly. Where will the shadows fall?
(2) Draw a straight road viewed from its middle. On either side is a fence There is also a telephone line on one side of the road. All lines will converge at the horizon.
(3) Draw a table in perspective. Also the interior of a room showing windows and door in perspective. For help in these perspective drawings refer to Lesson 9. Remember that distance is suggested by graduated tones, the darkest in foreground and lightest in the distance.
(4) For an exercise in composition, draw an interior scene showing a man and a pretty girl, furniture, windows, pictures on walls, etc. Arrange various items of the picture to put across the idea, for balance of objects, balance of tones with most important items most noticeable, those of less importance subdued, and those which are superfluous, entirely eliminated.
(1) In magazines, histories, encyclopedias, etc., look up pictures of the following people and draw caricatures of them, apply ing what you liave learned in the eleven preceding sections: William Bankhead, Leopold Stokowski, Al Smith, Jack Garner, John W. Davis, Adolph S. Ochs, Bernard M. Baruch, Dr. Raymond Ditmais, W. H. Woodin, Senator Borah, Dr. Raymond Moley, Sen. Pat Harrison, “Diszy” Dean, Bfll Tilden, Clark Gable, Joe E. Brown, Jimmy Durante, Ernest Lubitsch, William G. McAdoo, Charles G. Dawes, Calvin Coolidge, Jim Barley, Herbert Hoover, J. Edgar Hoover, Eugene O”Nefl, and F. D. Roosevelt.