Lesson 11 – This and That

Perspective is the art of representing objects, on a plane surface, in three dimensions, as they appear to the observer; the effect of distance on the appearance of objects.

The relative size of an object is determined by the distance it is from the eye. If you look through a small aperture, such as a hole punched in paper with a small pencil lead, you may see a large mountain at a distance. Another good example of perspective is a railroad track. Stand in the center of the track and see how the rails run upward and inward till they meet and vanish at an indefinite point. In perspective, objects of this nature, below the level of the eye, ascend to eye level; above the level of the eye they descend to the eye level. So telegraph wires beside the R. R. would descend and bear inward toward the track until they converge and vanish at eye level, which is also the “Horizon Line.”

Besides the relative sizes of objects in perspective, there is another way to obtain the illusion of distance in drawings. This is by color. Color is less brilliant at a distance, than it is nearer the eye. In line drawings, distant objects are simply drawn with finer lines, which really amounts to the same thing.

In art, arranging objects in a pleasing group is called composition. To obtain a pleasing group, there must be a balance of the objects represented, according to size, color, and importance. If there is much bright color near one side of a painting, and subdued colors are used for the remainder of the picture, then the attention of the eye will be attracted by the bright color to that particular side.

Objects of most interest should be placed near the center of the composition. Tones and values should be balanced. No large open or blank spaces should be permitted to detract from a composition. To fill in such places lettering and other detail may be used in cartoons. For compositions representing outdoor scenes, outdoor details may be employed, as: clouds, trees, smoke, automobiles, houses, fences, etc. For indoor detail, pictures on wall, windows and curtains, doors and furniture may be used. On the plates in this book, note how large open spaces were avoided by the placing of the comic figures, lettering and other detail.

As suggested before, you should keep a “morgue of clippings,” for reference as models when needed. Of course you will only want to keep unusually good examples of various kinds, techniques, actions, etc.; otherwise you would collect a large number that would very likely never be used. Practically all artists do this, because no one can draw just anything from memory. Clippings are also an aid in getting ideas for drawings. A composition in a clipping may be adapted for an original drawing, in which entirely different objects or figures may be used, according to ones need. Don’t copy outright an entire figure or composition, in the same technique, for this is really stealing, or at least, attempting to steal. Stealing another’s ideas, either in Art or Literature, is termed Plagiarism and is punishable by Federal Statutes pertaining to Copyrights.

To copyright drawings before submitting them to Editors or Publishers is unnecessary, as well as expensive. Only printed matter, with a few exceptions, may be copyrighted, and then it is necessary to pay a fee. However, if you should publish something you wish to Copyright, write to die Register of Copyrights, Library of Congress, Washington, D. C, requesting the required forms and information. You should do this previous to the printing of the work for there are some requirements as to the printing; especially of the Copyright Notice, which should contain the date of Copyright, and name of the owner of same. There is also a specified place for this notice in books.

Drawings intended for sale should be made on a good grade of Bristol Board, and a margin left all the way around the drawings. They should be mailed flat, and require first class postage. Enclose postage for the return of the drawings. Only send good drawings of a reasonable quantity. Enclose a neat and terse letter to the one you are sending the drawings to, written with pen and ink or typewriter if possible, on white letter size paper, 8 1/2 x 11. It is unnecessary to tell the Editor your qualifications in submitting freelance work, for he will consider it upon its merits regardless of your training and experience. If he likes your work and it is suitable for his publication he will purchase it, otherwise he will return it to you if you have enclosed proper and sufficient postage for that purpose. It is the quality of your work, and not how or why you can do it, that interest editors most.

Caricatures are becoming rather popular, and are widely used in Newspapers, Magazines, Books, and other printed matter. Some of the magazines using caricatures are, The Saturday Evening Post, American Magazine, Colliers, Bookman, Esquire and others.

Another good method for selling caricatures is to sell the original caricature to the subject from which it was made. Hobby Caricatures are perhaps best for this purpose. They are made with a large head and a small humorous body, illustrating some hobby or sport; such as: Painting, Fishing, Skiing, Golf, etc.

Caricatures are also employed to a considerable extent in the theatrical business. They are used in Posters, Newspaper Ads, and in Theatrical Displays, An example of the latter is the caricature by Eddie Burgess, see Frontispiece.

Always strive for originality. Do much sketching, and try out any idea you should think of. The greatest pleasure in Art should be in creating something original. How exalted and wonderful it is to create something good!

Practice caricaturing from life and from photographs dipped from magazines and newspapers Good studies may also be found in Histories and English Books containing pictures of writers and poets-

Success is to the ambitious and the persistent. Do not be discouraged if you do not gain recognition immediately; few artists have. There is pleasure in Art for the one that enjoys drawing, regardless of profit or recognition; and one who does not care for drawing will perhaps never succeed anyway. So, my dear reader, if you really like to draw, take SUCCESS as your goal and let nothing whatever deter you from your course. If you do this your success is assured